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The refractive index of a substance is the physical constant of a substance, and the refractive index is usually determined experimentally. For solid media, the least deviation angle method or self-collimation method is commonly used; the critical angle method (Abbe refractometer) is commonly used for liquid media, and the more precise interference method (Rayleigh interferometer) is used for gas media.
For the concept, please refer to the following definition:
When the light is refracted from the vacuum injection medium, the ratio n of the incident angle i and the sine of the refraction angle r is called the "absolute refractive index" of the medium, and is abbreviated as "refractive index". It represents a characteristic of the medium to light when light propagates in the medium.
[Formula]: n=sin i/sin r=c/v
Because the speed of light propagation in vacuum is the highest, the refractive indices of other media are all greater than one. The same medium has different refractive indices for light of different wavelengths; in a medium transparent to visible light, the refractive index often increases with decreasing wavelength, ie, the refractive index of red light is the smallest, and the refractive index of violet light is the largest. Generally speaking, the refractive index of an object is somewhat numerical (for example, water is 1.33, crystal is 1.55, diamond is 2.42, and glass is 1.5 to 1.9 according to composition), which means sodium yellow (wavelength 5893×10^-10 meters) ).
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