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The pH is one of the most important physicochemical parameters of aqueous solutions. Where natural phenomena involving aqueous solutions, chemical changes, and production processes are all related to the pH value, pH values need to be measured in the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine, environmental protection, and scientific research.
The pH of water is the negative logarithm of the activity of hydrogen ions in water. It is expressed as:
pH= - lg aH+
The pH value is also sometimes referred to as the hydrogen ion index. Since the numerical value of the hydrogen ion activity is often very small and the application is inconvenient, the concept of pH is used as an indicator of the acidity and alkalinity of the aqueous solution. Moreover, the negative logarithm of the activity of hydrogen ions can represent the order of magnitude of the magnitude of the change in acidity and alkalinity, which is very convenient to use and results in:
(1) Neutral aqueous solution, pH = -lg aH+=-lg10-7=7
(2) acidic aqueous solution, pH <7, the smaller the pH value, the stronger the acidity;
(3) alkaline aqueous solution, pH> 7, the greater the pH value, the stronger the alkaline.
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